5o4 HISTORY OF PERSIA CHAP. Khan, who replied in similar terms. He was there- upon dismissed from his post, and became bitterly hostile to the Amin-u-Sultan, and in a lesser degree to the Shah. Determined to take revenge, Malkom Khan, with the co-operation of Jamal-u-Din, published the paper Kanun, or " Law," referred to above. In it he recommended a fixed code of laws and the assembly of a parliament. He denounced his enemy the Amin-u-Sultan in violent terms ; and the Minister, in retaliation, punished any one who took in the obnoxious paper.1 The influence of the Kanun, which was written in excellent Persian, was considerable ; and Malkom Khan, though scarcely a disinterested patriot, certainly roused Persia more than any previous writer had succeeded in doing, The Ayn-u-Dola.—In 1903, upon the dismissal for the second time of Asghar Ali, the Atabeg-i-Aa%am^ by MuzafFar-u-Din, a council of five Ministers was con- stituted to carry on the Government; but very soon afterwards the Ayn-u-Dola, a prince of the blood and son-in-law of the Shah, was appointed Minister of the Interior and assumed control of affairs. In the following year he was given the title of Sadr-i-Aazam, and he continued in this office until August 1906. Thus the Ayn-u-Dola was the Minister under whose rule the con- stitutionalists won their great victories ; and, as many Persians consider that the conflict was brought about mainly by his reactionary stubborn character, His High- ness calls for special notice. As a youth he was educated in Teheran at a college which had been recently founded by Nasir-u-Din. There the professors apparently found him intractable ; for they presented a petition to the Shah in which they stated that they had tried flogging, starvation and other punish- ments, all in vain, and requested His Majesty to remove the unpromising pupil. The Shah consented and sent the young Prince to Tabriz, to serve Muzaffar-u-Din. He grew up with his new master, became his Master of the Horse, and was honoured by the hand of his 1 It was smuggled in among bales of calico or through foreign subjects and was rarely sent by post.